[Dissertation] Five criteria have been developed to compare and evaluate theories of counseling and psychotherapy: (1) concept form, (2) nondependence on general principles, (3) notions of structure, (4) properties of the organism, and (5) value structure. Twelve approaches to counseling and psychotherapy have been examined on the five criteria: psychoanalysis, transactional analysis, rational-emotive therapy, behavior therapy, reality therapy, Adlerian psychotherapy, Gestalt therapy, encounter, client-centered therapy, experiential psychotherapy, eclectic psychotherapy, analytic psychology, and Maslow’s theory. Most approaches satisfy none or only one criterion. Behavior therapy satisfies criteria no. 1, 2, and 4, Jung’s analytic psychology satisfies criteria, 1, 3, 4, and 5, and Maslow’s theory satisfies criteria no. 1, 2, 4, and 5.
Piechowski, M. M. (1975). Formless forms: The conceptual structure of theories of counseling and psychotherapy. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Wisconsin, Madison.